Contribution immunochemical methods in diagnosis and prevention of cervical dysplastic changes

Jana Vaculová1, Jaroslav Horáček2
1University Hospital of Ostrava, Department of Pathology, Czech Republic 2University of Ostrava in Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Czech Republic

Korespondenční autor: Jaroslav Horáček (jaroslav.horacek@osu.cz)

ISSN 1804-7181 (On-line)

Full verze:
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Submitted:16. 4. 2015
Accepted: 9. 6. 2015
Published online: 26. 6. 2015

Summary

Cervical cancer is the world’s fourth most frequent malignancy within the female population. Despite the established screening, incidences in the Czech Republic occur at a rate of about 20 cases per 100,000 women and with a mortality rate around 9 out of 100,000 women. The main factor of dysplasia and subsequent cervical cancer is the chronic infection with the human papillomavirus. This occurs when the oncogenic HPV types inactivate regulatory proteins of a cell and leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of immunochemical methods in the diagnostics of HPV infection in dispensarized patients with a finding of various grades of dysplasia. Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical methods with an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase p16INK4a and nuclear proliferation marker Ki-67 were used in a sample survey group of 47 women. The sample groups were also tested for the presence of the highly oncogenic HPV types by Hybrid Capture 2 method, but the relationship of the viral load and the grade of dysplasia was not proven. The control group consisted of five patients with normal findings, where the expected negativity of studied markers was confirmed. The results showed a correlation between the expression of the protein p16INK4a in cytological preparations with the morphological manifestations of the HPV infection in histological preparations, particularly with higher grades of dysplastic changes. This work confirmed that the detection of specific markers in the cytological and biopsy material contributes significantly to the specification of the degree of precancerous lesions on the cervix and, thus, their early detection.

Keywords: HPV; p16INK4a; Ki-67; dysplasia; immunohistochemistry; immunocytochemistry; screening

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