Lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis

Eva Rovenská1, 2, Mária Kovářová3
1National Cancer Institute of Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovak Republic 2National Institute of Rheumatic Diseases, Piešťany, Slovak Republic 3University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Department of Public and Social Health Care, České Budějovice, Czech Republic

Korespondenční autor: Eva Rovenská (rovenska@yahoo.com)

ISSN 1804-7181 (On-line)

Full verze:
Full version

Submitted:10. 10. 2015
Accepted: 25. 11. 2015
Published online: 31. 12. 2015

Summary

The review article is focused on lymphangiogenesis and on metastatic spread of tumor cells via the lymphatic vessels. Numerous new lymphatic vessels (especially lymphatic capillaries) are formed in the tumors and in their nearby location during lymphangiogenesis. Tumor cells can enter the lymphatic capillaries through existing specially opening connections in the capillaries walls between their endothelial cells. These are not connected with connecting complexes. When opened, the opening is a few micrometers wide. These specialized connections are named the same as the primary valves. Tumor cells can also erode lymphatic vessels and create larger incoherence directly in their vessel wall of endothelial cells. Lymphangiogenesis is induced by vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C/-D and VEGF-3. On the basis of lymphangiogenesis research in experimental animals, clinical and laboratory observations in humans, some scientists suggest that anti-lymphangiogenesis treatment could be beneficial for patients who are at risk of metastases from tumors passing through lymphatic vessels.

Keywords: lymphangiogenesis; metastases; tumors; anti-lymphangiogenesis treatment

Literatura

1. Alitalo A, Detmar M (2012). Interaction of tumor cells and lymphatic vessels in cancer progression. Oncogene. 31: 4499–4508.

2. Casley-Smith JR (1983). The structure and functioning of the blood vessels, interstitial tissues, and lymphatics. In: Földi M, Casley-Smith JR (eds.). Lymphangiology. New York-Stuttgart: Schattauer, 832 p.

3. Dadras SS, Paul T, Bertoncini J, Brown LF, Muzikansky A, Jackson DG et al. (2003). Tumor lymphangiogenesis: A novel prognostic indicator for cutaneous melanoma metastasis and survival. Am J Pathol. 162: 1951–1960.

4. Dvorak HF, Nagy JA, Feng D, Brown LF, Dvorak AM (1999). Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor and the significance of microvascular hyperpermeability in angiogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 237: 97–132.

5. Folkman J (1992). The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth. Semin Cancer Biol. 3: 65–71.

6. Gowans JL, Knight EJ (1964). The route of recirculation of lymphocytes in the rat. Proc R Soc B. 159: 257.

7. Ikomi E, Hunt J, Hanna G, Schmidt-Schönbein GW (1996). Interstitial fluid, plasma protein, colloid, and leukocyte uptake into initial lymphatics. J Cell Physiol. 81: 2060–2067.

8. Ji RC (2006a). Lymphatic endothelial cells, tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis: New insights into intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatics. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25: 677–694.

9. Ji RC (2006b). Lymphatic endothelial cells, lymphangiogenesis, and extracellular matrix. Lymphat Res Biol. 4: 83–100.

10. Jeltsch M, Tammela T, Alitalo K, Wilting J (2003). Genesis and pathogenesis of lymphatic vessels. Cell Tissue Res. 314: 69–84.

11. Leak LV, Burke JE (1966). Fine structure of the lymphatic capillary and the adjoining connective tissue area. Amer J Anat. 118: 785–809.

12. Maula SM, Luukkaa M, Gremman R, Jackson D, Jalkanen S, Ristamaki R (2003). Intratumoral lymphatics are essential for the metastatic spread and prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas for the head and neck region. Cancer Res. 63: 1920–1926.

13. Maeng YS, Aguilar B, Choi SI, Kim EK (2015). Inhibition of TGFBIp expression reduces lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Oncogene. Doi: 10.1038/onc.2015­.73.

14. Olszewski WL (1991). Interrelations hips within the lymphatic system. In: Olszewski WL (ed.). Lymph Stasis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and treatment. Boca Raton: CRC Press, p. 5–12.

15. Pastushenko I, Conejero C, Carapeto FJ (2015). Lymphangiogenesis: implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in patients with melanoma. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 106/1: 7–16.

16. Pereira ER, Jones D, Jung K, Padera TP (2015). The lymph node microenvironment and its role in the progression of metastatic cancer. In: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Academic Press, p. 98–105.

17. Pullinger BD, Florey HW (1935). Some observations on the structure and functions of lymphatics: their behaviour in local oedema. Br J Exp Pathol. 16: 49–61.

18. Pullinger BD, Florey HW (1937). Proliferation of lymphatics in inflammation. J Pathol. 45: 157–170.

19. Rovenská E, Rovenský J (2011). Lymphatic vessels: Structure and function. IMAJ. 13: 762–768.

20. Rubbia-Brandt L, Terris B, Giostra E, Dousset B, Morel P, Pepper MS (2004). Lymphatic vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression correlate with malignant behavior in human pancreatic endocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 10: 6919–6928.

21. Sato M, Sasaki N, Hiralawa S, Sato K, Sato K (2015). Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood-and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability. PloS One. 10/9: e0137301. Doi: 10.1371/journal­.pone.0137301.

22. Schmidt-Schönbein GW (2003). The second valve system in lymphatics. Lymphat Res Biol. 1: 25–29.

23. Trzewick J, Mallipattu SK, Artmann GM, Delano FA, Schmidt-Schönbein GW 2001). Evidence for a second valve system in lymphatics: endothelial microvalves. FASEB J. 15: 1711–1717.

24. Vandoorne K, Addadi Y, Neeman M (2010). Visualizing vascular permeability and lymphatic drainage using labeled serum albumin. Angiogenesis. 13: 75–85.

25. Wilkie MD, Emmett MS, Santosh S, Lightbody KA, Lane S, Goodyear PW et al. (2015). Relative expression of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head & Neck. Doi: 10.1002/hed.23959.

26. Witte MH, Jones K, Wilting J, Dictor M, Selg M, McHale N et al. (2006). Structure function relationship in the lymphatic system and implications for cancer biology. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 25: 159–184.

27. Zlotnik A (2004). Chemokines in neoplastic progression. Semin Cancer Biology. 14: 181–185.


Warning: readfile(http://www.xin.cz/xin/o.php) [function.readfile]: failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden in /var/www/journal-of-nursing-social-studies-public-health-and-rehabilitation/templates/templates.php on line 206