Retention of outdated theories about violence in intimate relationships in practice

Daša Malíková
Budúcnosť, n.o., Nitra, Slovak Republic; Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Education, Department of Social Work, Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Korespondenční autor: Daša Malíková (dada.malikova@gmail.com)

ISSN 1804-7181 (On-line)

Full verze:
Full version

Submitted:15. 5. 2019
Accepted: 16. 7. 2019
Published online: 31. 7. 2019

Summary

Women experiencing violence in intimate relationships, when seeking to solve the problem of violence in the framework of the help and support system, are faced with the stereotypical image of a “real” battered woman or an “ideal victim”. Only a woman who is passive, helpless, does not defend herself or her children, does not argue, physically fight back, who speaks to no one about the violence and who does not leave a violent partner conforms to this image. No woman experiencing violence and abuse can permanently “fit” the concept of an ideal and real victim. In the case that women do not conform to this “ideal” and the concept created by society, they do not receive social recognition and adequate help and protection. This paper deals with the concept of the Battered Woman Syndrome, according to which women in violent intimate relationships have learned to be passive and helpless. The paper also presents knowledge on the contradictory theory “The Survivor Hypothesis”, which sees women as active, competent and resilient. It delivers insight into the wide range of strategies that women use to stop or reduce violence, as well as about their two main strategies – private and public. Research to date agrees in the finding that the solution women most often use when seeking to resolve the situation is that of leaving the relationship, and that a very large proportion of women do physically resist attacks. This paper presents the links between and impacts of the findings in the context of social work and interventions in cases of violence in intimate relationships.

Keywords: Intimate relationships; Intervention; Violence; Stereotypical image; Women’s strategies

Literatura

1. Anderson DK, Saunders DG (2003). Leaving an abusive partner: An empirical review of predictors, the process of leaving, and psychological well-being. Trauma Violence Abus 4(2): 163–191. DOI: 10.1177/152483­8002250769.

2. Bowker L. H (1993). Does the battered woman syndrome exist? In: Gelles RJ, Loseke DR (Eds). Current controversies on family. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.

3. Bowker LH (1998). Ending the violence – a guidebook based on the experience of 1000 battered wives. Revised edition. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.

4. Brown J (1997). Working toward freedom from violence: The process of change in battered women. Violence Against Women 3(5): 5–26. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1297003001002.

5. Burge SK, Katerndahl DA, Wood RC, Becho J, Ferrer RL, Talamantes M (2016). Using complexity science to examine three dynamic patterns of intimate partner violence. Fam Syst Health 34(1): 4–14. DOI: 10.1037/fsh0000170.

6. Callahan AR (1994). Will the “real” battered woman please stand up? In Search of a realistic legal definition of battered woman syndrome. Journal of Gender & The Law 3(1): 117–152.

7. Campbell JC, Rose L, Kub J, Nedd D (1998). Voices of strength and resistance: A contextual and longitudinal analysis of women’s responses to battering. J Interpers Violence 13(6): 743–762. DOI: 10.1177/088626­098013006005.

8. Cavanagh K, Dobash E, Dobash RP, Lewis R (2001). ‘Remedial work’: Men’s strategic responses to their violence against intimate female partners. Sociology 35(3): 695–714. DOI: 10.1177/ S0038038501000359.

9. Coker AL, Smith PH, Whitaker DJ, Le B, Crawford TN, Flerx VC (2012). Effect of an in-clinic IPV advocate intervention to increase help seeking, reduce violence, and improve well-being. Violence Against Women 18(1): 118–131. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1212437908.

10. Davies J, Lyon E, Monti-Catania D (1998). Safety planning with battered women: Complex lives/ difficult choices. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

11. Dobash RE, Dobash R (1992). Women, violence, and social change. London: Routledge.

12. Domenech Del Rio I, Sirvent Garcia Del Valle E (2016). Influence of intimate partner violence severity on the help-seeking strategies of female victims and the influence of social reactions to violence disclosure on the process of leaving a violent relationship. J Interpers Violence 1: 8862605166764­73. DOI: 10.1177/088626­0516676473

13. Faigman DL, Wright AJ (1997). The battered woman syndrome in the age of science. Ariz L Rev 39: 67–115.

14. Fanslow JL, Robinson EM (2010). Help-seeking behaviors and reasons for help seeking reported by a representative sample of women victims of intimate partner violence in New Zealand. J Interpers Violence 25(5): 929–951. DOI: 10.1177/088626­0509336963.

15. Fugate M, Landis L, Riordan K, Naureckas S, Engel B (2005). Barriers to domestic violence help seeking: Implications for intervention. Violence Against Women 11(3): 290–310. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1204271959.

16. Gelles R (1976). Abused wives: Why do they stay? J Marriage Fam 38(4): 659–668. DOI: 10.2307/350685.

17. Gondolf EW, Fisher ER (1988). Battered women as survivors: An alternative to treating learned helplessness. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

18. Goodkind JR, Sullivan CM, Bybee DI (2004). A contextual analysis of battered women’s safety planning. Violence Against Women 10(5): 514–533. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1204264368.

19. Goodman L, Dutton MA, Weinfurt K, Cook S (2003). The intimate partner violence strategies index: development and application. Violence Against Women 9(2): 163–186. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1202239004.

20. Goodmark L (2009). Reframing domestic violence law and policy: an anti-essentialist proposal. WASH UJL POLY 31: 38–56.

21. Gordon L (1988). Heroes of their own lives: the politics and history of family violence – Boston, 1880– 1960. New York, NY: Viking.

22. Hayes BE (2013). Women’s Resistance Strategies in Abusive Relationships: An Alternative Framework. Sage Open 3(3): 1–10. DOI: 10.1177/215824­4013501154.

23. Hegarty KL, Gunn JM, O’Doherty LJ, Taft A, Chondros P, Feder G, et al. (2010). Women’s evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave). BMC Public Health 10: 2. DOI: 10.1186/1471–2458–10–2.

24. Kantor GK, Jasinski JL (1998). Dynamics and risk factors in partner violence, in partner violence: a comprehensive review of 20 years of research. In: Jasinski JL, Williams LM (Eds). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

25. Katerndahl DA, Burge S, Ferrer R, Becho J, Wood R (2014). Do violence dynamics matter? J Eval Clin Pract 20(5): 719–727. DOI: 10.1111/jep.12216.

26. Katerndahl DA, Burge SK, Ferrer RL, Becho J, Wood R (2017). Is perceived need for action among women in violent relationships nonlinear and, if so, why? J Interpers Violence 1: 8862605177274­95. DOI: 10.1177/088626­0517727495.

27. Kohn LS (2008). The justice system and domestic violence: engaging the case but divorcing the victim. NYU. Rev L Soc Change. 32(2): 191–252.

28. Lempert LB (1996). Women’s strategies for survival: developing agency in abusive relationships. J Fam Violence 11(3): 269–289. DOI: 10.1007/BF02336945.

29. Liang B, Goodman L, Tummala-Narra P, Weintraub S (2005). A theoretical framework for understanding help-seeking processes among survivors of intimate partner violence. Am J Community Psychol 36(1–2): 71–84. DOI: 10.1007/s10464–005–6233–6.

30. Mahoney M (1994). Victimization or Oppression? Women’s Lives, Violence, and Agency. In: Fineman MA, Mykitiuk R (Eds). The public nature of private violence: the discovery of domestic abuse. NY: Routledge, pp. 59–92.

31. Messing JT, O’Sullivan CS, Cavanaugh CE, Webster DW, Campbell J (2016). Are abused women’s protective actions associated with reduced threats, stalking, and violence perpetrated by their male intimate partners? Violence Against Women 23(3): 263–286. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1216640381.

32. Parker EM, Gielen AC, Castillo R, Webster DW, Glass N (2016). Intimate partner violence and patterns of safety strategy use among women seeking temporary protective orders: a latent class analysis. Violence Against Women 22(14): 1663–1681. DOI: 10.1177/107780­1216631436.

33. Peterson EL, Maier SF, Seligman MEP (1993). Learned helplessness: A theory for the age of personal control. New York: Oxford University Press.

34. Reisenhofer S, Taft A (2013). Women’s journey to safety – the Transtheoretical model in clinical practice when working with women experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: a scientific review and clinical guidance. Patient Educ Couns 93(3): 536–548. DOI: 10.1016/j.pec­.2013.08.004.

35. Reisenhofer S, Hegarty K, Valpied J, Watson LF, Davey MA, Taft A (2016). Longitudinal changes in self-efficacy, mental health, abuse, and stages of change, for women fearful of a partner: findings from a primary care trial (WEAVE). J Interpers Violence 34(2): 337–365. DOI: 10.1177/088626­0516640781.

36. Seligman MEP (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.

37. Shainess N (1979). Vulnerability to violence: Masochism as process. Am J Psychother 33(2): 174–189. DOI: 10.1176/appi.psychot­herapy.1979.33­.2.174.

38. Snell J, Rosenwald R, Robey A (1964). The wifebeater’s wife: A study of family interaction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 11(2): 107–112. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc 1964.01720260001­001.

39. Sullivan CM (2018). Understanding how domestic violence support services promote survivor wellbeing: a conceptual model. J Fam Violence 33(2): 123–131. DOI: 10.1007/s10896–017–9931–6.

40. Walker LE (1979). The battered woman. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers.

41. Walker LE (2009). The battered woman syndrome. 3rd ed. New York: Springer.

42. Wemmers JA, Couiseneau MM (2005). Victim’s needs and conjugal violence: Do victims want decision-making power? Confl Resolut Q 22(4): 493–508. DOI: 10.1002/crq.117.

43. Wood S (2004). A comparison of coping strategies used by urban and rural women in violent relationships. Master Thesis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. [online] [cit. 2018–09– 10]. Available from: https://cdr.lib.unc.edu/…04-409e-9c17- 6f92ebda7967

44. Young G, Gerson S (1991). New psychoanalytic perspectives on masochism and spouse abuse. Psychotherapy 28(1): 30–38. DOI: 10.1037/0033–3204.28.1.30.


Warning: readfile(http://www.xin.cz/xin/o.php) [function.readfile]: failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden in /var/www/journal-of-nursing-social-studies-public-health-and-rehabilitation/templates/templates.php on line 206