Inequities in under-five mortality in Ethiopia: examining the effects of non-monetary wealth and parental education

Nigatu Regassa Geda
1 Addis Ababa University, College of Development Studies, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2 University of Saskatchewan, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

Korespondenční autor: Nigatu Regassa Geda (

ISSN 1804-7181 (On-line)

Full verze:
Full version

Submitted:4. 1. 2023
Accepted: 31. 1. 2023
Published online: 30. 6. 2023


Background: Despite significant reduction in Ethiopian under five mortalities over the last few decades, the prevalence remains alarmingly high. This study was conducted to examine the differential effect of nonmonetary wealth and parental education on U5M in Ethiopia.

Methods: Data from three separate cycles of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS 2005, 2011 and 2016) were used. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and regression-based measures (the slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality) were used.

Results: The findings portrayed a modest decline in U5M between the year 2005 and 2016. However, inequalities between population groups persist, favoring the higher socio-economic groups. Specifically, inequities in non-monetary wealth and parent’s education, especially that of mothers, showed observable impacts on the prevalence of U5M (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Given that most Ethiopian women are living in rural areas, have no education, and the majority are deprived of economic advantages, this study recommends aggressive intervention in promoting women’s status at the grassroots level through community education and behavioral communication strategies that will eventually help to significantly reduce the huge disparity in early mortality in the population.

Keywords: Ethiopia; Inequality; Non-monetary wealth; Parental education; Under five mortality


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