Risk of cardiovascular diseases in immigrants for chosen nationalities and locations in the Czech Republic

Iva Brabcová1, Jitka Vacková2, Veronika Záleská3
1University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, 1Department of Nursing and Midwifery 2Department of Social Studies, České Budějovice, Czech Republic 3Koníček, o. s., České Budějovice, Czech Republic

Korespondenční autor: Iva Brabcová (brabcova@zsf.jcu.cz)

ISSN 1804-7181 (On-line)

Full verze:
Full version

Submitted:29. 4. 2013
Accepted: 25. 9. 2013
Published online: 30. 12. 2013


Topic of this article is based on research results from a project named “Health and social situation of immigrants and recognized refugees living in the Czech Republic” (reg. n. OC 10031) adopted by the COST Grant Agency (abbr. COST – Cooperation on Scientific and Technical Research) and financed during the period of 2010 through to May 2011. The research question posed, namely “whether chosen characteristics of social situation are related to chosen aspects of health”, stems from the conceptual frame of social determinants of health. Target group for this research are the following nationalities: Ukrainians, Vietnamese and Mongolians between the ages 18 and 65, 246 respondents in total. In terms of this research the occurrence of three influenceable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, namely smoking, hypertension and obesity was questioned. Based on the BMI of the respondents, their morbidity risk was also evaluated. This indicator was statistically tested related to non-influenceable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (gender, age) and to other social variables (occupation type, education, occupation category). By statistical testing the significance level of α = 0.05 was statistically significant for dependence between smoking and the immigrant gender (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.000) and nationality (p = 0.001). On the same level of significance dependence of exposure to smoky environment and occupation category was also statistically proven (p = 0.012). On a lower significance level of α = 0.05 statistically significant dependence between smoking and occupation type (p = 0.372) and education of respondents (p = 0.884) was not found. On the significance level of α = 0.05 the morbidity risk according to BMI evaluation of the respondents was found statistically significantly dependent on gender (0.014), age (p = 0.000) and nationality of the respondents (p = 0.000).

Keywords: risks factors; cardiovascular diseases; foreigners; social determinants of health; Czech Republic


1. Avendano M, Kunst AE, van Lenthe F, Bos V, Costa G, Valkonen T, Cardano M, Harding S, Borgan J-K, Glickman M, Reid A, Mackenbach JP (2005) Trends in Socioeconomic Disparities in Stroke Mortality in Six European Countries between 1981–1985 and 1991–1995. American Journal of Epidemiology.161/1: 52–61.

2. Barbeau EM, Krieger N, Soobader M-J (2004). Working Class Matters: Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Smoking in NHIS 2000. American Journal of Public Health. 94/2: 269–278. ISSN 1541 0048.

3. Baum CL (2009). The effects of cigarette costs on BMI and obesity. Health Economics. 18/1: 3–19.

4. Beaglehole R, Magnus P (2002) The search for new risk factors for coronary heart disease: Occupational therapy for epidemiologists? International Journal of Epidemiology. 31/6: 1117–1122.

5. Berkman LF, Sivaramakrishnan K (2008). WHO Commission on the social determinants of health: a bold new venture. European Journal of Public Health. 18/6: 547.

6. Binh PN, Abe Y, Tien PG, Son NTL, Hanh TT, Diep TN, Qui TKL, Kawano M, Maruyama C (2011). Plasma NOx Concentrations in Glucose Intolerance and Type 2 Diabetes- A Case-control Study in a Vietnamese Population. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. 18/4: 305–311. ISSN 1340 3478.

7. Brabcová I (2012a). Závislost ve vztahu k imigrantům v České republice [Dependence in relation to immigrants in Czech Republic]. In: Vacková J et al. Zdravotně sociální aspekty života imigrantů v České republice [Health and social aspects of immigrant life in Czech Republic]. Prague: Triton, p. 165–176. ISBN 978–80–7387–514–5 (Czech).

8. Brabcová I (2012b). Výživa ve vztahu k imigrantům v České republice [Nutrition related to immigrants in Czech Republic]. In: Vacková J et al. Zdravotně sociální aspekty života imigrantů v České republice [Health and social aspects of immigrant life in Czech Republic]. Prague: Triton, p. 177–183. ISBN 978–80–7387–514–5 (Czech).

9. Chakraborty B, Chakraborty R (2010). Concept, Measurement and Use of Acculturation in Health and Disease Risk Studies. Collegium Antropologicum. 34/4: 1179–1191. ISSN 0350 6134.

10. Danzinger S, Gottschalk P (1995). America unequal. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

11. Dooley D, Catalano R, Hough R (1992). Unemployment and alcohol disorder in 1910 and 1990 – drift versus social causation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 65: 277–290.

12. Ellaway A, Macintyre S (2007). Is social participation associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors? Social Science & Medicine. 64: 1384–1391.

13. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes. WHO: 2010. ISBN 978 92 4 156397 0 [online] [cit. 2010–10–09], p. 15. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/…3970_eng.pdf

14. Geronimus AT, Neidert LJ, Bound J (1993). Age patterns of smoking in United-States Black-and-White women of childbearing age. American Journal of Public Health. 83: 1258–1264.

15. Harper S, Lynch J, Smith GD (2011). Social determinant and the decline of cardiovascular diseases: Understanding the links. Annual Review of Public Health. 33: 39–69.

16. Hassmiller KM, Warner K.E, Mendez D, Levy DT, Romano E (2003). Nondaily smokers: who are they? American Journal of Public Health. 93: 1321–1327.

17. Hubert H, Finleib M, McNamara P, Castelli W (1983). Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: A 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart study. Circulation. 67: 968–977.

18. Hurst ChE (2007). Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

19. Kebza V (2005). Psychosociální determinanty zdraví [Psycho-social determinants of health]. Praha: Academia, p. 263 (Czech).

20. Leigh JP (1995). Smoking, self-selection and absenteeism. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 35: 365–386.

21. Lund T, Csonka A (2003). Risk factors in health, work environment, smoking status, and organizational context for work disability. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 44: 492–501.

22. Lund T, Iversen L, Poulsen KB (2001). Work environment factors, health, lifestyle and marital status as predictors of job change and early retirement in physically heavy occupations. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 40: 161–169.

23. Manning MR, Osland JS, Osland A (1989). Work- Related Consequences of Smoking Cessation. Academy of Management Journal. 32: 606–621.

24. Massey DS (1996). The age of extremes: Concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century. Demography. 33: 395–412.

25. Matthews S, Power Ch (2002). Socio-economic gradients in psychological distress: a focus on women, social roles and work-home characteristics. Social Science & Medicine. 54: 799–810.

26. Provazník K et al. (2004). Manuál prevence v lékařské praxi [Manual of prevention in medical practice]. Praha: Fortuna, p. 733 (Czech).

27. Report on the Global Tabacco Epidemic, 2011, Country profile Czech Republic (2011). Geneva (Switzerland): WHO [online] [cit. 2013–02–02]. Available at: http://www.who.int/…file/cze.pdf

28. Report on the Global Tabacco Epidemic, 2011, Country profile Mongolia, 2011. Geneva (Switzerland): WHO. [online] [cit. 2013–02–02]. Available from: http://www.who.int/…ance/policy/ country_profi­le/mng.pdf

29. Report on the Global Tabacco Epidemic, 2011, Country profile Ukraine (2011). Geneva (Switzerland): WHO [online] [cit. 2013–02–02]. Available at: http://www.who.int/…ance/policy/ country_profi­le/ukr.pdf

30. Report on the Global Tabacco Epidemic, 2011, Country profile Viet Nam (2011). Geneva (Switzerland): WHO [online] [cit. 2013–02–02]. Available at: http://www.who.int/…ance/policy/ country_profi­le/vnm.pdf

31. Stibich M (2007). Age and High Blood Pressure. [online] [cit. 2013–02–02]. Available at: http://longevity.about.com/…sk/p/age.htm.

32. Škrla P, Škrlová M (2003). Kreativní ošetřovatelský management [Creative nursing management]. Praha: Advent-Orion, p. 485 (Czech).

33. USDHHS (2004). The health consequences of smoking: A report of the surgeon General. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

34. Vacková J (2010). Sociální postavení vybraných Romů v České a Slovenské republice a jeho vliv na zdraví [Social situation of chosen individuals of Gypsy minority in Czech and Slovak Republics and its influence on health]. In: Davidová E et al. Kvalita života a sociální determinanty zdraví u Romů v České a Slovenské republice [The Quality of Life from the Aspect of Health Determinants in the Roma in the Czech and Slovak Republics]. Praha: Triton, p. 144–165 (Czech).

35. Vokurka M et al. (2004). Velký lékařský slovník [Lexicon of medicine]. 4th ed. Praha: MAXDORF, p. 906. ISBN 80 7345 037 2 (Czech).

36. Wilkinson R, Marmot M (2003). Social determinants of health: The solid facts, 2nd ed. WHO Europe, ISBN 92 890 13710.

37. Wright JD, Hughes JP, Ostchega Y, Yoon S, Nwankwo T (2011). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults aged 18 and over in the United States, 2001–2008. National Center for Health Statistics. 25/35: 1–22. ISSN 0278–4912.

38. Zaret B, Moser M (1992). Heart book. Yale University School of Medicine, p. 432.

Warning: readfile(http://www.xin.cz/xin/o.php) [function.readfile]: failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden in /var/www/journal-of-nursing-social-studies-public-health-and-rehabilitation/templates/templates.php on line 206